Alvor Agreement Angola

The agreement did not provide for any mechanism to verify the number of combatants of each force. The three parties soon had more strength than the Portuguese, jeopardizing the colonial power`s ability to maintain peace. Fighting by political groups resumed and reached new heights as foreign arms deliveries increased. In February, the Cuban government warned the Eastern Bloc that the Alvor agreement would not succeed. In the spring, the African National Congress and SWAPO reiterated Cuba`s warning. [6] Leaders of the Organization of African Unity organized a peace conference in June hosted by Kenyan President Jomo Kenyatta with the three leaders in Nakuru, Kenya. On 21 June, Angolan leaders issued the Nakuru declaration[7] in which they declared themselves ready to comply with the provisions of the Alvor Agreement, while acknowledging that mutual distrust had led to violence. [1] The failure of the United States to achieve the desired result in Angola has increased the superpower`s commitment to the Third World. Subsequent differences of opinion on the Horn of Africa and Afghanistan contributed to the annihilation of the Dtente period between the Soviet Union and the United States. In addition, the Angolan crisis has also put an end to a recent thaw in US-Cuban relations. The parties agreed to hold elections to angola`s National Assembly in October 1975. From 31 January 1975 to independence, a transitional government, composed of the Portuguese High Commissioner, Admiral Rosa Coutinho, and a Prime Minister (PMC) was to govern. The PMC was made up of three representatives, one of each Angolan party to the agreement, with a rotating Prime Minister among the representatives.

Each PMC decision required two-thirds support. The twelve ministries were divided between the Angolan parties and the Portuguese government, three each. Author Witney Wright Schneidman criticized this provision in Engaging Africa: Washington and the Fall of Portugal`s Colonial Empire for a “virtual paralysis of executive power.” The Office of Intelligence and Research warned that the excessive desire to maintain the balance of power in the agreement limited the functioning of Angola`s interim government. [1] [2] [3] During the Angola crisis, the United States and the Soviet Union were still experiencing a brief thaw in relations at a time called Dtente. During this period, Washington and Moscow had concluded a series of agreements aimed at easing tensions between the two superpowers.