In addition, countries are working to reach “the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions” as soon as possible. The agreement has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   Currently, 197 countries – each nation on earth, the last signatory being war-torn Syria – have adopted the Paris Agreement. 179 of them have consolidated their climate proposals with official approval, including, for the time being, the United States. The only major emitters that have yet to formally accede to the agreement are Russia, Turkey and Iran. The agreement recognizes the role of non-partisan stakeholders in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. A preliminary inventory-impact study was published in Nature Communications in April 2020. Based on a public policy database and a multi-model scenario analysis, the authors showed that the implementation of current strategies by 2030 leaves an average emission gap of 22.4 to 28.2 GtCO2eq, with optimal means to achieve targets well below 2 degrees Celsius and 1.5 degrees Celsius. If national contributions were fully implemented, this gap would be reduced by one-third. The countries assessed did not achieve their promised contributions with implemented measures (implementation deficit) or experienced a gap in ambition with optimal paths to well below 2oC. The study showed that all countries should accelerate the implementation of renewable technology strategies, while improving efficiency in emerging and fossil fuel-dependent countries is particularly important.
 Commits to reduce emissions by 29% for agriculture, 31% for energy and 21% for forests and land use by 2030, compared to a “business as usual” scenario. That`s an average drop of 27%. This is linked to international aid, although about 40% of them can be filled unconditionally. Contains a section on adaptation, but only for the period 2015-2020. The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  But without the United States, the balance between the parties that signed the Paris Agreement shifts in China`s favor on key issues that have not yet been resolved. According to Michael Oppenheimer, a climatologist at Princeton University in New Jersey, China could resist demands for follow-up and detailed reports on how countries implement their policies and achieve their goals. “It doesn`t bode well for the effectiveness of the Paris agreement,” he says. The Paris Agreement was launched at the signing on April 22, 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.  After the agreement was ratified by several EU member states in October 2016, there were enough countries that had ratified the agreement to produce enough greenhouse gases in the world for the agreement to enter into force.
 The agreement came into force on November 4, 2016.  In order to “significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change,” the agreement calls for the average increase in global temperature over this century to be well below 2 degrees Celsius, while continuing efforts to limit the increase in temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius.